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Best Islands for Purchasing A Vacation Home

Investors may find value in their stocks and bonds, but these aren’t investment they can “enjoy” per se. That’s not the case with purchasing a Hawaiian vacation home, which you can use part of the year and rent out during the top tourist season. If you’re in the market for a vacation/rental property, explore each of the Hawaiian Islands before making your decision. Location, location, location is the real estate mantra, and much depends on proximity to beaches and other attractions.


On the Big Island, tourists tend to prefer smaller vacation rentals. Studio rentals have an average occupancy rate of 77 percent, with one-bedrooms averaging a 68 percent occupancy rate.  A larger property may not have the highest occupancy rate, but that may not matter as far as cash flow goes as you will charge more for the larger rental. Of course, if you plan to use the home as your own vacation site, you’ll want a property that suits your needs. For a single person or a couple who want the most bang for their investment buck, a studio or one-bedroom is the way to go.


On Kauai, the most popular type of vacation rental is the studio apartment, with a 79 percent average occupancy rate. That’s compared to a one-bedroom average occupancy rate of 69 percent and a three-bedroom rate of 63 percent. Of course, if you plan to use the home as your own vacation site, you’ll want a property that suits your needs. For a single person or a couple who want the most bang for their investment buck, the studio is the way to go.


The demand for vacation homes on quiet, little Lanai is not as great as on the larger islands. Large rental homes near the two major resorts do well, but the smaller vacation properties in the countryside attract a different type of tourist. You love Lanai for its solitude and slow pace, and so do those who choose to vacation here instead of an island with more formal activities.


Vacation condo rentals are popular in Maui, but keep in mind that not all condo associations permit rentals. A Maui vacation rental benefits from the relatively long length of bookings, with an average of nine days in 2018.


Molokai’s small population is not the only reason it isn’t a favorite tourist destination. It beaches are lovely, but many lack facilities or have accessibility issues or aren’t safe for swimming or snorkeling. Vacation rental rates on Molokai are quite affordable, so while that’s good for vacationers, it won’t bring landlords a stellar ROI.


Oahu is the most expensive of the Hawaiian Islands, and while you’ll pay more for your vacation/rental property, you can expect to charge more for rent. In Honolulu, studios are the best investment, while those vacationing on the North Shore prefer larger rentals.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a vacation or rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


February 14, 2019

Discovering Each Hawaiian Island

If you’re considering moving to Hawaii, you have a lot of decisions to make. One of the most critical is which island to call your new home. Perhaps you’re currently considering just one island because it’s the island with which you’re most familiar, but each island sports its own desirable features. Before making a definite decision, explore what each island has to offer.


Although the Big Island is the largest in area, with under 200,000 residents it feels underpopulated. The Kona side is frequented by tourists, while the Hilo side is green and very wet. If you love nature and don’t mind rain, laid-back Hilo is an excellent choice. It’s also the place native Hawaiian prefer. If you love sunshine, beaches and water sports, Kona is the better choice. Hawaii is the least expensive of the larger islands in which to buy a home. As of 2018, the average single family home price on Hawaii was $330,400.


Tourism is the main industry on this lovely, lush isle. If you want to live among unspoiled nature, Kauai is the place to go. Jobs are relatively scarce outside of tourism, and the approximately 67,000 residents are spread out over Kauai. If you seek a simple lifestyle, head for Kauai. The 2018 single family median home price was $625,500.


Residents of this small island are primarily descendants of pineapple plantation workers. If you like a small town island feel, you might fall in love with Lanai. Even though there are few people, the island has great beaches and historic sites. Most people live in Lanai City, referred to as “The Village.” Most of Lanai’s businesses and commercial establishments are located in the Village. In Lanai City, the average median home price is $551,600.


Gorgeous Maui has some drawbacks, as it doesn’t have the shopping and nightlife some residents crave. The upside is that there are plenty of relatively cheap flights to Oahu available to indulge yourself, and you can then return home to quiet Maui. Besides tourism, jobs in the healthcare and construction industries are plentiful. The 2018 single family median home price was $620,000.


If you like solitude, consider this least populated isle. If you need to work, it’s not the best choice, as there are relatively few jobs. There is, however, abundant beauty, and it’s the ideal site for someone who truly wants to get away from it all. The average median home price ranges from $200,000  to $400,000, as there are relatively few houses on the market at one time.


Those who like nightlife will feel at home on Oahu. This most populated island is also the best place to find a job outside of the tourism industry in the state. Oahu also holds the dubious distinction of being the most expensive of the Hawaiian Islands. The 2018 single family median home price was $735,500. World-class shopping, dining, beaches and entertainment make this one of the best places to live in the U.S.


Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


Rental Rules on Oahu

Short-term Rental Rules on Oahu

Hawaii is both a vacation paradise, and one of the most expensive places to live in the country. It makes sense that many homeowners try to make some money by renting their properties out to tourists, but most of them aren’t following Oahu’s rental rules.  Last fall, the Honolulu Planning Commission passed a proposal by Mayor Kirk Caldwell to regulate Oahu’s short-term rentals. Under the proposed law, short-term rentals – units rented out for less than 30 days – are capped at 1 percent of the housing stock in every planning district. Now it’s up to the Honolulu City Council to refine and pass a bill, which Caldwell hopes will be ready for him to sign this summer.

Thousands of Illegal Short-term Rentals Operating

According to Hawaii Business, there are an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 vacation rentals in operation on Oahu at any time. Many of them are illegal, since no new permits for such short-term rentals have been issued since the 1980s, but shutting them down isn’t an easy task for law enforcement. Although all you need to do is go online and check ads for short-term vacation rentals, that doesn’t mean that what the property owner is advertising is legal. Since just placing an ad isn’t against the law, inspectors generally respond to neighbors’ complaints when investigating a short-term rental.

Vacation Destination Area

In order to rent out a home short-term, the property must be located in a Vacation Destination Area (VDA). Areas outside the VDA permit long-term rentals, those exceeding six months.

Short-Term Rental Taxes

If you rent out your home on a short-term basis, you must collect and pay the appropriate taxes. You may owe federal taxes on the income, but you must also charge your visitor the Transient Accommodation Tax (TAT) for any rental of less than 180 days. If the guest stays longer than six months, you must charge the General Excise Tax (GET). In addition, you’ll need to acquire a permit and a business license registration. Violate the rules, and penalties are steep – they start at $10,000 per day. Mayor Caldwell admits that’s draconian, but it is a strong incentive for preventing illegal short-term rentals.

Other Rules Affecting Short-Term Rentals

While Oahu’s short-term rentals laws are important, they aren’t the only regulations to take into consideration if you considering renting out your property. Your homeowner’s association may not permit such rentals, even if your property is located in a VDA,  and even more critically, neither may your mortgage company. The contract with your lender may contain language regarding renters vs. an owner-occupied property, and violating the terms of the contract could change your payment schedule and insurance coverage. Before going any further down the short-term rental route, contact your insurance agent. They will explain what you need to do to ensure you are covered if you rent out your property.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor. We’ll help you find the right home at the right price for you, or the right short-term or long-term vacation rental. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


January 24, 2019

Short Term VS Long Term – Which Rental Is Right For You?

Short-Term Vacation Rental vs. Long-Term Vacation Rental

Given the sheer number of short-term vacation rentals on Oahu, it’s surprising to learn that only 816 of these short-term rentals are currently legal. New short-term rentals outside of specific areas have been banned since 1989. Legislation may soon change that, but don’t expect the Honolulu City Council to approve or the mayor to sign any new law until at least this summer. If you’re considering renting out your property, doing so via the long-term vacation rental route comes with fewer obstacles from a zoning perspective, but it may also hinder your ability to enjoy the property when you want to.

Short-term Rentals

In Honolulu, there are two types of short-term rentals, both of which are rented for less than 30 days by the guests. A “transient vacation unit” consists of properties where the owner is not present, and the entire house, apartment or condo is rented to the guest. The other type of short-term rental is the traditional bed and breakfast, also known as a hosted rental, with owners living on the property and renting out extra bedrooms or cottages.  However, those are not the regulations for most of Oahu, which does not permit rentals for less than 30 days, the classic “short-term rental.” Much also depends on homeowner and condo association rules, which may not allow any type of short-term rental, even if the rental exceeds 30 days.

Long-term Vacation Rental

Long-term vacation rentals are identified as those in which visitors stay for six months or more. They don’t have the same sort of restrictions found with short-term rentals. Some homeowners buy property in Hawaii with the intention of renting it out, but before doing so, perform your due diligence. While short-term rentals are only permitted in Oahu in a Vacation Destination Area (VDA), long-term rentals are allowed outside of VDA areas.

While long-term vacation rentals do not generate the type of controversy given short-term rentals, it’s important for the homeowner to do their research. They must check with their homeowner’s association to see if such rentals are permitted, since many HOAs allow only owner-occupied units. The same holds true for their homeowner’s insurance company and mortgage lender. The homeowner must pay the fee for a General Excise Tax (GET) business license registration, collect the tax on long-term rentals and pay these funds to the state.

One argument against long-term vacation rentals is that they deplete the amount of housing stock available for rent for those living in the area. There’s a severe housing shortage on Oahu, and the practice of long-term vacation rentals is exacerbating the problem. One reason the VDA law was enacted was for preventing outside investors from  dominating the local housing market. That may have helped when it comes to short-term rentals, but does nothing for the long-term vacation rental that could otherwise provide year-round resident housing.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor. We’ll help you find the right home at the right price for you, or the right short-term or long-term vacation rental. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


Things to Do on Oahu During Christmas and New Year’s

Things to Do on Oahu During Christmas and New Year’s

There’s no need to worry about snow and ice dampening holiday activities on Oahu, and that’s why locals and tourists alike find so much to enjoy here in this festive season. Even better, many of the activities are free or low-cost. Here’s just a sampling of what’s available for your entertainment pleasure:

The Month-Long Luau

Every day in December, Paradise Cove on Ewa Beach offers a special luau complete with live music and dance, traditional Hawaiian games and other cultural festivities. Tickets range from $85 to $170 and gates open at 5 p.m.

Chinatown Winter Walk

Also available throughout the month of December, the Chinatown Winter Walk features dazzling holiday decorations. The walk is free, and maps are posted in the area.

Downtown Honolulu City Lights

Bring the family to the 34th annual Honolulu Hale, also known as Honolulu City Lights. From December 1 to January 1, the downtown is lit up in a spectacular display. The kids will love the food booths, games and rides.

Christmas in Polynesia

From December 9 to 22, enjoy Christmas in Polynesia at the Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) from 6:30 to 9:30 p.m. The $5 per person Christmas Lagoon Ride takes you along a path to view reenactments of the Christmas story. Holiday train rides and free scavenger hunts for kids are part of the fun. From December 17 to 22, catch Christmas at the Hukilau Marketplace at the PCC, with entertainment for the whole family, fabulous lights and decorations and “snow” on Sunday.

Whale Watching Tour

The holidays coincide with whale migration season, and that allows you a great opportunity to book a Whale Watching Tour from December 16 to 31. Small group tours in catamarans or monohull boats leave from Waikiki or Ko Olina.

Seven Days ‘Til Christmas With Island Music and Hula

Visit Waikiki Beach Walk at sunset from December 19 to Christmas Day and see a one-hour hula show with different Hawaiian music groups performing each night.


New Year’s Eve

Welcome in 2019 with fireworks and fine dining options at various sites. Head to Waikiki Beach for its spectacular annual fireworks display beginning just before midnight. Starting at 11 p.m., Hilton Hawaiian Village hosts a fireworks show over their lagoon. On the North Shore, Turtle Bay Resort hosts a private fireworks show, in conjunction with numerous parties and dining options.

Other fireworks displays include the Barge off Kahala Avenue, starting at 10:30 p.m.; the Aloha Tower Marketplace, at 9, 10 and 11 p.m. and midnight, and the Kahala Hotel and Resort at midnight.

If you’re looking for a New Year’ Eve party, consider Aloha Tower, with over 30 live bands on seven stages. There are lots of food trucks, and if you purchase a VIP pass, you’ll have access to exclusive food tastings and a great spot for watching fireworks.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


December 19, 2018

Should You Decorate if You’re Trying to Sell?

Christmas /Holiday Decorations – Should You Decorate if You’re Trying to Sell?

When your home is on the market during the holidays, you have a decision to make. Do you decorate your dwelling as usual, or skip the trimmings this year? There are pros and cons to putting up holiday decorations when you’re trying to make a sale, but you don’t have to give up seasonal decorations entirely.

Don’t Make It Personal

Just as your real estate agent advises you to pack away most of the family photos and other personal items when you’re getting ready to show your house, the same holds true when it comes to decorations. When potential buyers who celebrate Christmas come to your home, they should imagine it as their next home, and that’s hard when you have stockings hung with family members’ names on them, holidays cards on display, your kid’s handmade ornaments on the tree, and the like. Instead, display attractive but generic decorations.


Moderation is Key

If you usually put on a holiday lighting extravaganza, this is definitely not the year to do it. Over the top decorations prevent buyers from really seeing your house as it is, and such ornamentation is very much geared to personal taste. That doesn’t mean you can’t decorate outside and inside, but stick with the classics and keep decorations to a minimum. That means a wreath on the door, perhaps candles in the window and maybe some simple white lights on a tree or around a doorframe. Inside, keep it simple. While some realtors advise against putting up a tree, that’s a real sacrifice for your family, especially if you have kids. If the tree is normally the centerpiece of a room, opt this year for a moderate size tree that doesn’t overwhelm the space. Poinsettias and Christmas cactuses provide nice touches, but avoid anything kitschy. This year, less is more.

Stay Away from the Overtly Religious

People of all faith traditions, or no faith traditions, are possible buyers. Christmas and Hanukkah are both religious holidays, but there are more secular aspects to both. For Christmas, go with wreaths rather than displays of the Holy Family. For Hanukkah, some blue and white themes, such as individual candles, may work better than a menorah. Again, the point is not to downplay the importance of religious traditions during the holidays, but to make your home as appealing to buyers as possible. No matter the faith or lack of faith of a buyer, a lack of religious holiday symbols is not going to affect them emotionally. Overt religious symbolism may have that effect, either positively or negatively. Since you don’t know who your potential buyers are, don’t do anything that may turn a buyer off.

Don’t Hide Home Features

 When decorating, take care not to hide any of your home’s features. Keep decorations away from windows, staircases, fireplace mantels and other visual points of interest, and never place a holiday banner on a wall. A few small decorations displayed on a table are fine.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


Tips for Selling During the Holidays

Tips for Selling During the Holiday Season

The holidays aren’t exactly prime time for buying and selling real estate, but if your home is on the market, you don’t want to simply sit back and wait until after New Year’s Day. During this busy time of year, potential buyers, as well as real estate agents, often have holiday activities that can make scheduling showings difficult, and you may experience the same issues. However, keep in mind that buyers who are looking during the holidays are usually quite motivated. They may have a strict deadline by which they must move, or perhaps want to purchase a new home by year’s end for tax purposes. Since there are fewer houses for sale during the holidays, there’s also less competition for those buyers who are out there.

Discreet Decorations

You are living in your home and celebrating the holidays, but if you normally make a big deal out of decorating for the season, dial it back a bit if your house is being shown. That doesn’t mean you have to eschew all decorations, but a simple wreath on the door and a relatively small tree is a good plan. Make sure any decorations you do put up are in good condition and in good taste. Buyers want to see how the house flows, which is difficult if there are decorations all over the place. Avoid covering up features that attract buyers, such as large windows with a view.

Clean, Shiny and Bright

Of course, a house for sale should always look clean and fresh, but they should also have brightness. The holidays coincide with the darkest time of the year, so showings conducted in the late afternoon or evening require better lighting so visitors can see your house clearly. Replace some of your lower wattage bulbs with high wattage lighting to brighten your house.

An Emotional Pull

The holidays are an emotional time, and you can take advantage of that fact to appeal to buyers. After all, there’s a huge emotional component when it comes to purchasing a home. Since it is the holiday season, you many want to bake a pie or cookies in the oven to give your house a warm scent and cozy vibe. Of course, you should offer a plate of those fresh cookies, brownies or other baked goods to the buyers coming to look at the house. Some mulled cider and goodies gives the buyer a welcome feeling and may influence their decision, even subconsciously.

Price the Property Properly

You can attract more potential buyers during the holidays if your house is priced right. Your real estate agent will provide you with the right pricing for your home in the current market. Perhaps you could ask a little more money for it in the spring, but you’re paying your mortgage and property taxes in the meanwhile.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor. We make sure buyers, sellers and renters understand the process every step of the way. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or


November 19, 2018

Buying and Selling During The Holidays

The Pros and Cons of Buying and Selling a House During the Holidays

The period from Thanksgiving to New Year’s Day is generally considered a bad time of year to sell or buy a house, but is that really true? Many of the conditions contributing to lower home sales during this season are weather-related, such as colder temperatures and ice and snow. That’s simply not an issue in Hawaii. Of course, the many activities associated with the holidays does mean that sellers, buyer and real estate agents don’t have as much time for showings as they may during other times of the year. However, buyers especially may have more time off than usual to look for a new home, and those purchasing a home at this time of year tend toward the more motivated.

Fewer Houses on the Market

Many homeowners intending to sell don’t put their houses on the market until after the holidays or wait until the early spring. If you do decide to sell your house during this period, you have an advantage, as fewer available houses mean less competition. For the buyer, however, that’s a disadvantage, as there are not as many houses from which to choose. Some buyers are more likely to make lowball offers during the holidays, sensing a seller is desperate if they list their home in late fall or early winter. A seller probably won’t experience a bidding war, but because there is less competition, they may receive a higher sale price, as long as they ignore the low ballers.

December 31 Deadlines

Why are the buyers house shopping during the holidays more motivated? Often, it’s because they have a December 31 deadline looming. They may need to relocate for job purposes, or want to the tax advantages of closing before the end of the year. While the motivation is a plus, this is a tougher time of year for a buyer to obtain financing if they aren’t pre-approved. As with everyone else, lenders, appraisers and other real estate professionals may take time off during the holidays. That makes meeting a December 31 deadline especially difficult if the offer isn’t made on the property until the middle of the month.

If a buyer is interested in buying a foreclosure, this may prove the best time of year to purchase such a home. Banks really want to get these properties off their books by year’s end, and may accept an offer they wouldn’t consider earlier.

The Staging Dilemma

Many homeowners love to decorate their dwellings for the holidays, but that may cause a problem when trying to sell the home. Too many decorations may obscure some of the home’s best features, so that potential buyers can’t see the house to its best advantage. On the other hand, tasteful decorations can add to a home’s charm. If you’re a seller, your real estate agent can help advise you on the best way to decorate and stage your home for the holidays for marketing purposes.


Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor. We make sure buyers, sellers and renters understand the process every step of the way. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or




Single-Family vs. Condo

Single-Family Home vs. Condo for Young Home Buyers

Millennials are entering the housing market en masse, and their needs will shape the majority of the housing market for decades to come. Young people seeking a home must decide whether a condo or single family house is best suited for their purposes. One choice is not necessarily better than the other, and there are pros and cons to both types of housing.


Condos are generally less expensive than single-family homes, but that’s not the only reason for their appeal. If you’re working hard to build your career and also enjoy a lot of socializing and traveling, spending your free time working on your yard or maintaining your home probably isn’t a top priority. With a condo, you can leave any exterior work to the homeowner’s association contractors. For many young people, easy access to restaurants, entertainment, shopping and nightlife is often essential, and condos are usually closer to these amenities than single family homes. Commutes are generally much shorter, and if you live downtown, there’s no commuting at all.

There’s also the “family” aspect. If you don’t plan to have children, or at least not for quite some time, purchasing a condo may make more sense. Since most condos are marketed to adults, you don’t have to concern yourself with the quality of the local school system or all the other considerations those intending to raise a family must contend with in a home purchase.

When it comes time to sell, however, it may take longer to do so with a condo than a single family home. That’s because there’s a uniformity to the units, so those selling two floors above you and two floors below you are likely pretty much the same as your space. It’s harder to make your unit stand out for a buyer than a more individual single family home.

Single Family Homes

When you live in a single family home, you have more responsibilities, but you also have more options. You can generally make changes to the exterior and interior, as long as the changes meet local zoning codes. You can personalize your home in ways that aren’t possible with a condo.

If you have your heart set on a single-family home but don’t have unlimited funds, there are ways to achieve your goal if you’re willing to make some sacrifices. That primarily means putting up with a longer commute. Houses close to major commuting areas are virtually always more expensive than dwellings close by, and you’ll get more “bang for the buck” in terms of home size and amenities. If you or your spouse works in Honolulu, for example, consider how far out you are willing to move to buy a house you really want. If one or both of you are able to work remotely at least part of the time, that may make up for long commutes on other days.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or

October 11, 2018

First-Time Home Buyers

Strategies for First-Time Home Buyers

Buying a first home is often stressful, especially when coming up with a hefty down payment is a problem. Don’t despair. There are ways to come up with a down payment enabling you to enter the ranks of homebuyer.

Saving for a Down Payment

Perhaps the best way to save for a down payment is by putting a fixed amount away each month. You can set an automatic deposit from your checking into your savings accounts. Other ways to save include going over your budget with a fine-tooth comb and lowering your expenses as much as possible. The amount you save goes into your down payment account. If possible, consider getting a second job with the proceeds towards your down payment.

IRA Withdrawals

In most circumstances, you can’t withdraw funds from your IRA without a 10 percent penalty until reaching the age of 59 ½. However, if you are a first-time homebuyer, the IRS permits a withdrawal of up to $10,000 for a down payment with no penalties. If you and your spouse both have IRAs, that means you can withdraw up to $20,000. If either of you have parents or grandparents with IRAs, they can withdraw up to $10,000 without penalty to help you purchase a first home.

FHA Loan

If coming up with a substantial down payment for your first home is a problem, or your credit score isn’t terrific, consider an FHA loan. If your score is at least 580, the FHA allows a down payment minimum of 3.5 percent. Even better, the FHA permits a down payment that is gifted to you, so if you generous relatives, you can in effect achieve 100 percent financing. You will have to pay an Upfront Mortgage Insurance Premium (UFMIP) at closing and maintain mortgage insurance for the life of the loan. However, properties located on Hawaiian homelands do not require an UFMIP.

Hawaiian real estate is expensive, but you already know that. FHA loan limits vary by county in the state. In Honolulu the limit is $721,050, while it is $657,800 in Maui and Kalawao and $713,000 in Kauai. In Hawaii County, the FHA loan limit is just $368,000.

Hawaii Housing Finance and Development Corporation

The HHFDC has affordable units available in various developments. If you are a qualified resident – which means you are at least 18 years of age, a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, currently live in Hawaii, will live in the unit and have sufficient income to receive the loan – you are entered in a public lottery drawing for the available properties. Currently, purchase prices range from $250,000 for studio apartments, up to $500,000 for three-bedroom, 2.5 bath single-family unit. If you qualify, it makes sense to fill out an application – someone wins the right to purchase such units, and you could prove the lucky winner.

Contact Us

If you’re looking to buy or sell a home or find a rental property, you need a knowledgeable, experienced realtor familiar with all aspects of the Hawaiian real estate market. Contact Island Realty Group LLC at 808-689-7407 or